Rich Man Poor Man, how epidemics are distributed socially:
In the 19th Century Rudolf Virchow distinguished between “artificial” and “natural” epidemics. Typhus, scurvy, tuberculosis and mental illness, he considered “artificial”, that is, concentrated among the poor, clearly differentially distributed among social classes, while dysentery, malaria and pneumonia were “natural” epidemics, more evenly distributed among the various social classes.
In the 21st Century, malaria has been switched to poverty, and HIV/AIDS, although not restricted to the poverty group, is perceived to be a poverty illness, in my opinion, these diseases kill many in the poverty groups, because the ‘local’ traditional healers, are forbidden to heal these diseases in competition with economic interests, escalating poverty levels, while maintaining illness levels.
As we enter 2021, and I Google Typhoid as a poverty diseases, what are the symptoms of Typhoid?
Fever, Headache, Weakness and fatigue, Muscle Aches, Sweating, Dry cough, Loss of appetite, Stomach Pain.
Typhoid is endemic within South Africa, and sporadic cases are reported in all provinces every year. In addition to sporadic endemic disease, clusters and outbreaks may occur. There is ongoing risk of typhoid fever in any area where water quality and sanitation is not optimal.
The typhoid germ enters the body through the mouth, usually in contaminated food and water. Drinking water taken from contaminated wells was a common source of infection. The patient suffered headache and nose-bleeding, general body aches, a feeling of tiredness and persistent fever which may have lasted up to three weeks. He developed a rash, called ‘rose spot’ and relapsed into delirium and mental confusion. Bronchitis and pneumonia were secondary and frequently fatal effects.
The typhoid germ enters the body through the mouth, usually in contaminated food and water. Drinking water taken relapsed from contaminated wells was a common source of infection. The patient suffered headache and nose-bleeding, general body aches, a feeling of tiredness and persistent fever which may have lasted up to three weeks. He developed a rash, called ‘rose spot’ and into delirium and mental confusion. Bronchitis and pneumonia were secondary and frequently fatal effects.
The burden of diarrheal diseases is very high, accounting for 1.7 to 5 billion cases per year worldwide. Typhoid fever (TF) and cholera are potentially life-threatening infectious diseases, and are mainly transmitted through the consumption of food, drink or water that has been contaminated by the feces or urine of subjects excreting the pathogen.
Disciple Cedric, has interacted with hundreds of Township and Village residents, who display these symptoms, they will attend the local clinic, and be treated with a small envelope of pills.
This is where I add a video of the typical failed service delivery in South Africa, water born sewerage, spewing out of the manhole, flowing into a spring that feeds the Klipspruit, and soon it joins the Vaal River, entering the Johannesburg water supply system.
The Klipspruit flows through residential and agricultural areas, children swim in the Klipspruit, people use the water for washing, themselves, washing their bedding and their clothes.
The local farmer’s livestock drink from the Klipspruit, the local farmers use the Klipspruit to irrigate their crops.
How many of the South African poverty groups, who may be exposed to Salmonella typhi in South Africa, are correctly diagnosed and treated accordingly?
Rich Man Poor Man, who is suffering?
The primary diseases of poverty, like TB, malaria, and HIV/AIDS, and the often co-morbid and ever-present malnutrition, take their toll on helpless populations in developing countries.
Poverty is not just income deprivation, but capability deprivation and optimism deprivation as well.
The interplay of these diseases of poverty is substantial and can hardly be overlooked. We know how TB compounds AIDS. TB and HIV are synergistic infections: HIV infection increases the rate of activation of latent TB infection and speeds progression of TB. TB accelerates the progression of AIDS by increasing the rate of HIV replication.
We also know how malnutrition compounds TB. “TB is associated with poverty, overcrowding, alcoholism, stress, drug addiction and malnutrition… The disease spreads easily in overcrowded, badly ventilated places and among people who are undernourished.”
We also cannot forget how all three, TB, HIV/AIDS and malnutrition, are dynamically interlinked with each other and with their overlord, poverty itself.
The social dimension of poverty can hardly be discounted. “. no social phenomenon is as comprehensive in its assault on human rights as poverty.
Poverty erodes or nullifies economic and social rights such as the right to health, adequate housing, food and safe water, and the right to education.
Alcoholism, drug abuse, chronic mental disorders, sociopathy, beggary, violence in family and neighbor-hoods, physical abuse and neglect of the female (especially the female child), commercial sex, all these, while they may impact any strata of society, leave their greatest trail of devastation among the impoverished.
Poverty and Income/Capability/Optimism Deprivation
More importantly, the poor, assailed by life’s vicissitudes and society’s callousness, may learn to accept their fate and sink further into the morass of poverty, disease and deprivation.
A greatly reduced self-esteem, with a feeling of being trapped in a helpless situation, with no succour in sight, adds to the crippling effect of poverty-disease-deprivation on human existence.
Poverty is not just income deprivation but capability deprivation as well. Millions of people living in the third world are still “unfree,” “denied elementary freedom and, imprisoned in one way or another by economic poverty, social deprivation, political tyranny, or cultural authoritarianism”.
There is a distinction between lack of income and lack of capacity. Poor people acutely feel their powerlessness and insecurity, their vulnerability and lack of dignity. Rather than taking decisions for themselves, they are subject to the decisions of others in nearly all aspects of their lives.
Their lack of education or technical skills holds them back. Poor health may mean that employment is erratic and low-paid. Their very poverty excludes them from the means of escaping it. Their attempts even to supply basic needs meet persistent obstacles, economic or social, obstinate or imaginative, legal or customary. Violence is an ever-present threat, especially to women.
The poorest use what resources they have, and considerable resourcefulness, in their struggle to survive. For the poor, innovation means risk, and risk can be fatal. Helping them improve their capacities calls for imagination as well as compassion.
Equally important, along with income and capability deprivation, poverty also means optimism deprivation. Let us explain what we mean thereby. The will or motivation to fight poverty, the urge to escape its shackles, the hope that the fight will succeed one day-this optimism is lost due to subsistence living and the daily fight for survival.
There seems to be no cause for cheer, no redemption around the corner, no way out, howsoever much the person struggles. A trapped helpless feeling, which grows on the person, aided and abetted at every step by the life situation around-this is what mainly sustains the poverty-disease-deprivation spiral. It is this optimism deprivation that may be a salient feature of the depression that overwhelms such individuals, adds to resource deprivation and income deprivation and, finally, does the person in.
DIFFICULTY TO DIAGNOSE?
The duration of infection is a major determinant of the risk of severe complications, and a delay in administering appropriate antibiotic treatment may have serious consequences.
Isolation of S. typhi from blood is the most common method of diagnosis, though the bacterium can also be isolated from bone marrow, feces and duodenal fluid. Blood culture displays suboptimal sensitivity, generally being positive in only about 50% of cases.
It also has several limitations, including the volume of blood needed, the need for prompt transport to the laboratory, interference due to prior antibiotic use, limited laboratory expertise and equipment, and expense.
Disciple Cedric fires his first shot in the Poverty Revolution:
The voices of the poverty group, presently can’t be heard, the healer must be the attorney of the poverty group, if any of your community have Typhoid symptoms, you must request them to take a picture of any waste/sewerage water following in their neighbourhood, take their mobile phone with the picture, to their nearest community Clinic, ask the Clinic management, to have a Typhoid test conducted, and they must request management to provide a written test report.
The written report should be copied to you as the healer, who must collate your patients results, and forward to the Campus Rudolf Virchow Africa, structure.
Every picture so taken, and request to be tested for Typhoid, will be firing a bullet in support for poverty alleviation.
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